Indian Economic Development Textbook for Class - 11 - NCERT: Books. (Download) NCERT Book For Class XI: Economics (Indian Economic Development). Table of Contents. UNIT I: DEVELOPMENT POLICIES AND EXPERIENCE. Free PDF download of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Indian Economic Development solved by Expert Teachers as per NCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines.

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IndianEconomicDevelopment. NCERT/CBSE class 11 Economics book IndianEconomicDevelopment. Chapter 1. NCERT/CBSE class 11 Economics book. NCERT Class.. Class I, Class II, Class III, Class IV Class XI & XII SubjectSelect Book Title Indian Economic Development. Indian Economic Development Textbook for Class - 11 - [by NCERT Browse our editors' picks for the best books of the month in fiction, nonfiction.

Desai estimated the National Income and per capita income during the colonial period. Ans : The main causes of India's agricultural stagnation during the colonial period were: Land Settlement Policies: Colonial government introduced various land settlement policies such as Zamindari system in which maximum profit coming from agriculture sector went into the hands of Zamindars instead of cultivators. Neither Colonial government nor Zamindars did anything to improve the condition of agriculture.

This caused immense misery and social tension among cultivators. Therefore, the zamindars adopt a stubborn attitude. Drought and famine make the situation more critical. This commercialisation of Indian agriculture not only increased the burden of high revenues on the poor farmers but also led India to face shortage of food grains, resources, technology and investment. Do you agree with this view? Give reasons in support of your answer. Ans : Yes, I do agree with the view that the traditional handicrafts industries were ruined under British rule.

Ans : Under the colonial regime, basic infrastructure such as railways, ports, water transport, posts and telegraphs did develop. However, the real motive behind this infrastructure development was not to provide basic amenities to the people but to subserve various colonial interests.

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Like the roads that were built primarily served the purposes of mobilizing the army within India and drawing out raw materials from the countryside to the nearest railway station or the port to send these to far away from England or other lucrative foreign destinations. The introduction of the expensive system of electric telegraph in India, similarly, served the purpose of maintaining law and order. Ans : The industrial policy followed by the British colonial administration was solely to facilitate the upcoming modern industries in Britain.

The primary motive of this de-industrialisation was to reduce Indian into a mere supplier of Britain's own flourishing industrial base and turn India into a market of Britain's machine made items. Though during the second half of the nineteenth century, modern industry began to take root in India but its progress remained very slow.

Initially, this development was confined to the setting up of cotton and jute textile mills. Subsequently, the iron and steel industries began coming up in the beginning of the twentieth century. A few other industries in the fields of sugar, cement, paper etc. But, there was hardly any capital goods industry to help promote further industrialisation in India.

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Indian Economic Development

Furthermore, the growth rate of the new industrial sector and its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product GDP remained very small. Another significant drawback of the new industrial sector was the very limited area of operation of the public sector.

This sector remained confined only to the railways, power generation communications. Ans : India has been an important trading nation since ancient times. But the restrictive policies of commodity production, trade and tariff pursued the colonial government adversely affected the structure, composition and volume of India' foreign trade.

India became an exporter of primary products and importer of finished consumer goods.

Both, the ISI and Sankhya, are highly regarded by statisticians and economists all over the world to this day. Some of these economists became Nobel Prize winners later, which shows that he could identify individuals with talent.

Among the economists invited by Mahalanobis were those who were very critical of the socialist principles of the second plan.

In other words, he was willing to listen to what his critics had to say, the mark of a great scholar.

Many economists today reject the approach to planning formulated by Mahalanobis but he will always be remembered for playing a vital role in putting India on the road to economic progress, and statisticians continue to profit from his contribution to statistical theory.

Norton, New York and London. In the case of India, the structural change is peculiar.

Usually, with development, the share of agriculture declines and the share of industry becomes dominant. At higher levels of development, the service sector contributes more to the GDP than the other two sectors. In India, the share of agriculture in the GDP was more than 50 per cent—as we would expect for a poor country. But by the share of the service sector was This phenomenon of growing share of the service sector was accelerated in the post period this marked the onset of globalisation in the country which will be discussed in a subsequent chapter.

The technology. For example, a farmer can GDP is the market value of all the increase the output on the farm by goods and services produced in the using new seed varieties instead of country during a year.

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Economics Chapter 1 Indian Economy On The Eve Of Independence

You can think using the old ones. Similarly, a factory of the GDP as a cake: growth is can increase output by using a new increase in the size of the cake. If the type of machine. Adoption of new cake is larger, more people can enjoy technology is called modernisation.

It is necessary to produce more However, modernisation does not goods and services if the people of refer only to the use of new technology India are to enjoy in the words of the but also to changes in social outlook First Five Year Plan a more rich and such as the recognition that women varied life. A modern society makes sector, the industrial sector and the use of the talents of women in the service sector. The contribution work place — in banks, factories, made by each of these sectors makes schools etc.

In some countries, growth in agriculture contributes Self-reliance: A nation can promote more to the GDP growth, while in economic growth and modernisation some countries the growth in the by using its own resources or by service sector contributes more to using resources imported from other GDP growth see Box 2.

For getting these details you may refer to Economic Survey of the latest year. This policy needs such as food, a decent house, was considered a necessity in order education and health care and to reduce our dependence on foreign inequality in the distribution of wealth countries, especially for food. It is should be reduced.

Class 11 NCERT Solutions Indian Economic Development - Chapter 2 - Free PDF Download

You will study the policies sovereignty vulnerable to foreign and developmental issues taken up interference in our policies. Equity: Now growth, modernisation and self-reliance, by themselves, may not improve the kind of life which You have learnt in Chapter 1 that people are living. A country can have during the colonial rule there was high growth, the most modern neither growth nor equity in the technology developed in the country agricultural sector.

The policy makers itself, and also have most of its people of independent India had to address living in poverty. This is because ownership of land enables the tiller to make profit from the increased output. Tenants do not have the incentive to make improvements on land since it is the landowner who would benefit more from higher output. The importance of ownership in providing incentives is well illustrated by the carelessness with which farmers in the former Soviet Union used to pack fruits for sale.

It was not uncommon to see farmers packing rotten fruits along with fresh fruits in the same box. Now, every farmer knows that the rotten fruits will spoil the fresh fruits if they are packed together. This will be a loss to the farmer since the fruits cannot be sold.

So why did the Soviet farmers do something which would so obviously result in loss for them? Low level of technology, lack of irrigation facility and negligible use of fertilizers, added to aggravate the plight of the farmers and contributed to the dismal level of agricultural productivity.

The British Government allowed tariff free export of raw materials from India and tariff free import of British industrial products into India. But a heavy duty on the export of Indian handicrafts products.

It leads to decay of handicrafts industry in India. Industrial revolution in Britain gave a stiff competition to the handicraft industries in India. Due to low cost and better quality product produced by machine forced the Indian craftsmen to shut down the handicraft Industry in India. This changed the pattern of demand in India against the Indian products and in favour of British products.

As a result, the Indian Industry tended to Perish. As a result, the size of the market for the low cost British product expanded while it started shrinking for the high cost Indian products.

This lead to decay of Industry in India. What was the condition of foreign trade under the British rule? Ans 1 Due to discriminative tariff policy adopted by the British Government, India became net exporter of raw materials and primary products. On the other hand, it became net importer of finished goods reproduced by the British Industry.

It was only used to increase the pursuits of the British Government.Indicate the volume and direction of trade at the time of independence.

At higher levels of development, the service sector contributes more to the GDP than the other two sectors. Lack of Proper Input: Another significant drawback of the new industrial sector was the very limited area of operation of the public sector. Prime Minister as its Chairperson. A socialist society answers the three questions in a totally different manner. This changed the pattern of demand in India against the Indian products and in favour of British products.